970.  The subject of a finite verb is in the nominative case, as ὀλέκοντο δὲ λᾱοί and the people kept perishing, ἔδεισεν δ' ὁ γέρων and that old man feared

971.  The subject of an infinitive is regularly in the accusative, ἄμμε ὀί̄ω ἂψ ἀπονοστήσειν I think we shall return home, βούλομ' ἐγὼ λᾱὸν σόον ἔμμεναι I wish my people to be safe. The subject of the infinitive is usually omitted when it is the same as the subject or object, either direct or indirect, of the main verb. 

972.  When the infinitive is used to express a command (1107, 11), its subject, when expressed, is in the nominative when of the second person, and in the accusative when of the third person, as σὺ τόν γ' ἐπέεσσι καθάπτεσθαι μαλακοῖσιν but do you attack him with soft words. 

973.  A finite verb regularly agrees with its subject nominative in person and number, except:

1) A neuter plural subject may take its verb in the singular, as ᾤχετο κῆλα θεοῖο the shafts of the god sped, τὰ δέδασται these have been distributed.

2) With two or more  subjects  connected by and, the verb may agree with one of the subjects and be understood with the rest, as μή νύ τοι οὐ χραίσμῃ σκῆπτρον καὶ στέμμα θεοῖο lest the Sceptre and the fillet of the god avail thee naught, εἰ δὴ ὁμοῦ πόλεμός τε δαμᾷ καὶ λοιμὸς Ἀχαιούς if war and pestilence at the same time crush the Achaeans.

3) When referring to two, the plural and dual are often interchanged or united, δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν and her eyes appeared terrible, τώ οἱ ἔσαν κήρῡκε καὶ ὀτηρὼ θεράποντε who were his two heralds and ready attendants, τὼ δ' αὐτὼ μάρτυροι ἔστων and let these two be witnesses.

974.  A noun or an adjective in the predicate after verbs meaning be, appear,  become, be thought, made, named, chosen, regarded, and the like, agrees with the subject in case, as ὁμηγερέες τε γένοντο and they became assembled; ὃς ἄριστος Ἀχαιῶν εὔχεται εἶναι who boasts that he is far the mightiest of the Achaeans, τὸ δέ τοι κὴρ εἴδεται εἶναι but that seems (to be) even as death to you, δειλός τε καὶ οὐτιδανὸς καλεοίμην I should be called both coward and worthless. 

975.  Apposition — A  noun used in connection with another noun to describe it, and denoting the same person or thing, agrees with it in case, and is said to be in apposition with it, as Ἀτρεΐδης ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν the son of Atreus, king of men, Χρύ̄σην ἠτί̄μασεν ἀ̄ρητῆρα he slighted Chryses, the priest

976.  The verb εἰμί (especially the forms of the third person singular and plural ἐστί, εἰσί) is often omitted, when it can easily be supplied from the context.

977.  Other words are at times omitted, as ναὶ μὰ τόδε σκῆπτρον = ναὶ μὰ τόδε σκῆπτρον ὄμνῡμι yea, by this sceptre (I swear)

NOUNS Nominative Case

978.  A noun is in the nominative:

1) When it is the subject of a finite verb (970).

2)  When it is in the predicate after certain verbs (974).

3) Sometimes for the vocative, as δημοβόρος βασιλεύς king, who devours (the goods of) the people!

Genitive Case

The Greek genitive represents two earlier cases (657):

1) the genitive proper, denoting the class to which a person or thing belongs.

2) the ablatival genitive (formerly the ablative), usually expressing separation, source, cause.

979.  Some of the most common uses of the genitive are:

1) Possession, as ψῡχὰ̄ς ἡρώων souls of warriors, Διὸς βουλή the will of Zeus, ἐπὶ νῆας Ἀχαιῶν to the ships of the Achaeans: the possessive genitive.

2) The subject of an action or feeling, as μῆνιν Ἀχιλῆος the wrath of Achilles (i.e. felt by Achilles): the subjective genitive.

3) The object of an action or feeling, as Ἀχιλλῆος ποθή a yearning of (i.e. for) Achilles, πόσιος καὶ ἐδητύος ἔρον the desire of (i.e. for) food and drink: the objective genitive.

4) Material or contents, as πυραὶ νεκύων funeral pyres of corpses, ἑκατόμβᾱς ταύρων ἠδ' αἰγῶν hecatombs of bulls and of goats: genitive of material.

5) Measure of time, space, or value (price), as κούρης Χρῡσηίδος ἄποινα δέξασθαι to accept the ransoms for the maiden Chryseïs: genitive of price.

6) Cause or origin, as εὐχωλῆς ἐπιμέμφεται he finds fault on account of a vow (unperformed), χωόμενον γυναικός vexed for the sake of a woman: the genitive of cause.

7) The whole after words denoting the part, as τίς θεῶν; which (one) of the gods? τὸ πλεῖον πολέμοιο the greater part of the war: the partitive genitive.

980.  The partitive genitive may follow all adjectives, adverbs, nouns, and participles, which denote a part, as οἰωνοπόλων ὄχ' ἄριστρος far the best of augurs, οἶος Ἀργείων alone of the Argives, τῶν δ' ἄλλων οὔ τις ὁρᾶτο but not any one of the others saw her.

981.  A genitive in the predicate after verbs meaning to be, etc., and other copulative verbs, may express any of the relations of the attributive genitive (979, 1-7).

982.  Any verb whose action affects the object in part only, or which means to share, or to enjoy, may take the genitive, as ἀρνῶν κνί̄σης αἰγῶν τε τελείων ἀντιάσᾱς having partaken of the fat of unblemished lambs and goats, ἵνα πάντες ἐπαύρωνται βασιλῆος in order that all may reap the benefits of their king.

983.  Verbs meaning to begin, make trial of, take hold of, touch, attain, claim, aim, hit, miss, take the genitive, as κόμης ἕλε Πηλεΐωνα she grabbed Achilles by the hair of his head, λαβὲ γούνων lay hold of his knees, χειρὸς ἑλόντε having taken hold of her hand, ποδὸς τεταγών having seized me by the foot.

984.  Verbs signifying to taste, smell, hear, perceive, comprehend, remember, forget, desire, care for, spare, neglect, wonder at, admire, despise, take the genitive, as κλῦθί μευ hear me σέθεν δ' ἐγὼ οὐκ ἀλεγίζω οὐδ' ὄθομαι κοτέοντος I reck not of thee, nor am I concerned at thine anger, κήδετο Δαναῶν she grieved for the Danaans, καὶ μέν μευ βουλέων ξύνιεν and they hearkened to my advice, τῶν μιν μνήσᾱσα having reminded him of this, Θέτις οὐ λήθετ' ἐφετμέων Thetis did not forget the behests.

985.  The genitive follows verbs signifying to rule, lead, direct, as ὃς Τενέδοιο ἀνάσσεις who dost rule Tenedos, ὃς πάντων Ἀργείων κρατέει who rules all the Argives.

986.  Verbs signifying fulness and want take the genitive of material (979,4). Those meaning to fill take the accusative of the thing filled, and the genitive of material, as μένεος φρένες πίμπλαντο his diaphragm, was filled with rage, κοῦροι κρητῆρας ἐπεστέψαντο ποτοῖο the young men fitted the mixing bowls to the brim with drink.

987.  The genitive may denote that from which anything is separated or distinguisJied (genitive of separation); hence it is used after verbs meaning remove, restrain, release, cease, fail, differ, give up, etc., as λῆγ' ἔριδος cease from strife, πολέμου δ' ἀποπαυέο but refrain from war. It is used also to denote source, as δεινὴ κλαγγὴ γένετ' ἀργυρέοιο βιοῖο a terrifying clang arose from the silver bow

988.  The genitive follows verbs signifying surpass, be inferior to, and all others  which imply a comparison (993), as Κλυταιμ(ν)ήστρης προβέβουλα I prefer (her) to Clytaem(n)estra, περὶ πάντων ἔμμεναι ἄλλων to be above all Others, οἳ περὶ βουλὴν Δαναῶν ἐστε (you) who surpass the Danaans in counsel

989.  Verbs compounded with a preposition are often followed by the genitive, as τὰ πολίων ἐξεπράθομεν what(soever) we took as spoil from the cities, περίσχεο παιδός protect your son

990.  The  genitive  may denote time within which anything takes place.

991.  Many adjectives  kindred  in  meaning  or  derivation  to verbs  which  take  the  genitive  are  followed by  the  genitive (objective). 

992.  Many adverbs, chiefly those of place, and those derived from adjectives which take the genitive, are construed with the genitive, as τηλόθι πάτρης far from her native land, πάροιθ' αὐτοῖο in front of him, λιμένος ἐντός within the harbor.

993.  Adjectives and adverbs of the comparative degree take the genitive (988), unless followed by ἤ (ἠέ) than, as οὔ ἑθέν ἐστι χερείων she is not inferior to her (literally not worse than), φέρτερός εἰμι σέθεν I am mightier than you, γλυκίων μέλιτος sweeter than honey.

994.  A  noun and a participle not  closely  connected  grammatically with the rest of the sentence may stand by themselves in the genitive. This construction is called the genitive absolute. Examples: αὐτοῦ κῑνηθέντος as the god moved, ἐμεῦ ζῶντος καὶ ἐπὶ χθονὶ δερκομένοιο while I live and look out upon the earth. See 1111.

Dative Case 

The Greek dative represents three earlier cases (657):

1) the dative proper, denoting to or for which something is or is done.

2) the instrumental (dative), denoting instrument, means, manner, cause, accompaniment.

3) the locative (dative), denoting place where and time when.

995.  The indirect object of a transitive verb is in the dative, as τήν οἱ πόρε Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων which Phoebus Apollo granted to him, πῶς τοι δώσουσι γέρας how shall they give you a prize of honor?

996.  Many verbs which in English are transitive are intransitive in Greek and take the dative. The verbs of this class are mainly those  meaning  serve, benefit, defend, assist, please, obey, trust, satisfy, advise, exhort, and their opposites; also those signifying abuse, anger, blame, envy, friendliness, hostility, reproach, threats, etc., as βασιλῆι χολωθείς incensed at the king, οὐκ Ἀτρεΐδῃ ἥνδανε θῡμῷ it was not pleasing to the son of Atreus in his soul, μή νύ τοι οὐ χραίσμσῃ σκῆπτρον καὶ στέμμα θεοῖο lest the sceptre and the fillet of the god avail thee not, ἐπείθετο μύ̄θῳ he obeyed the command, μοὶ ἀρήξειν to defend me, ὅτε χώσεται ἀνδρὶ χέρηι when he becomes enraged at an inferior, ἀπειλήσω δέ τοι ὧδε and I shall threaten you as follows, μήνι Ἀχαιοῖσιν continue to rage against the Achaeans.

997.  A person or thing for whose advantage or disadvantage a thing exists or is done is put in the dative, as αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσί τε δαῖτα and it made themselves a booty for the dogs and a banquet for the birds, παῖδα δ' ἐμοὶ λῦσαι but free for me my child, τόδε μοι κρήηνον ἐέλδωρ accomplish for me this desire, ἡμῖν ἀπὸ λοιγὸν ἀμῦναι to ward off destruction for (from) us, καὶ δή μοι γέρας αὐτὸς ἀφαιρήσεσθαι ἀπειλεῖς and you threaten to take away for (from) me my prize of honor, Ἀχιλλῆι μεθέμεν χόλον to forego (your) anger for Achilles, σὺν δ' ἡμῖν δαῖτα ταράξῃ and he should throw the banquet into confusion for us

998.  The dative of interest or reference denotes the person to whose case a statement is limited.

999.  The dative with εἰμί, γίγνομαι, and verbs of similar meaning, may denote the possessor, as τῶν δ' ἄλλων ἅ μοι ἔστι παρὰ νηί but of all else which are mine beside my ship, τώ οἱ ἔσαν κήρῡκε who were his two heralds.

1000.  The dative of the personal pronouns often denotes the possessor, without such verbs as εἰμί, γίγνομαι, etc., as ὄσσε δέ οἱ πυρὶ ἐίκτην and his two eyes were like fire, ὅ μοι γέρας ἔρχεται ἄλλῃ my prize of honor is going elsewhere, δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν and her eyes gleamed terribly.

1001.  The dative is used after verbs meaning to give commands, and to lead the way for, as νήεσσ' ἡγήσατ' Ἀχαιῶν Ἴλιον εἴσω and he led the way for the ships of the Achaeans into Troy, Μυρμιδόνεσσι ἄνασσε rule the Myrmidons

1002.  The dative follows some verbal nouns and many adjectives and adverbs of kindred meaning with verbs which take the dative, as τὰ κάκ' ἐστὶ φίλα φρεσί evil is dear to your heart, οὔ τί μοι αἴτιοί εἰσιν they are in no wise blamable toward me, ἔχθιστός μοί ἐσσι you are most hateful to me, ἐπεὶ μάλα οἱ φίλος ἦεν since he was exceeding dear to him, χαλεποί τοι ἔσονται they will be (too) hard for you, ἵλᾱος ἔσσεται ἡμῖν he will be propitious toward us

1003.  The dative is used after all words signifying likeness, or unlikeness, agreement, disagreement, union, or approach, as νυκτὶ ἐοικώς like unto night, ὄσσε δέ οἱ πυρὶ ἐίκτην and his eyes were like unto fire, οὐ σοί ποτε ἶσον ἔχω γέρας never have I a prize of honor equal to you(rs), ἐπιείκελον ἀθανάτοισιν like unto the immortals.

1004.  The dative follows many verbs compounded with ἐν, σύν, and ἐπί, and some compounded with πρός, παρά, περί, and ὑπό, as αὐτοῖσι βέλος ἐθῑείς hurling a dart upon them, ὃς Ἀργείοισι κήδε' ἐφῆκεν who brought sorrows upon the Argives, νηυσὶ παρήμενος sitting beside the ships, σοί γε παρέζετο she sat down beside you, οἱ συμφράσσατο βουλὰ̄ς Θέτις Thetis devised plans with him, μητρὶ δ' ἐγὼ παράφημι but I advise my mother, ἐρῶντο γέλος θεοῖσιν laughter arose among the gods.

1005.  The dative is used to denote cause, manner, means, instrument, and agency, as τί̄σειαν Δαναοὶ ἐμὰ δάκρυα σοῖσι βέλεσσιν may the Danaans atone for my tears with thy darts, ἔπεσιν καὶ χερσὶν ἀρήξειν to assist with words and hands, ὑπεροπλί̄ σι τάχ' ἄν ποτε θῡμὸν ὀλέσσῃ by his deeds of arrogance he will soon lose his life, μηδὲ ξίφος ἕλκεο χειρί and do not continue to draw your sword with your hand, ἔπεσιν ὀνείδισον revile him with words, χερσὶ οὐ μαχήσομαι I will not fight with my hands, κύ̄δεϊ γαίων rejoicing in his glory, τῶ σὲ κακῇ αἴσῃ τέκον therefore I bore you to an evil lot, τὴν βίῃ ἀέκοντος ἀπηύρων whom they took away by violence against his will, μολπῇ θεὸν ἱ̄λάσκοντο they appeased the god with music and dancing, λάβε γούνων σκαιῇ she seized his knees with her left (hand), τοὶ κεφαλῇ κατανεύσομαι I shall nod assent to you with my head

1006.  The dative is used to denote the circumstance, or that by which a thing or person is accompanied. The dative of circumstance is most common with abstract or semi-abstract words, and is often used to express the reason or occasion, σοὶ ἅμ' ἑσπόμεθα we accompany you, οἵ οἱ ἅμα τράφεν ἠδὲ γένοντο who were bred and born with him, ἑκάστῳ δῶμα Ἥφαιστος ποίησεν ἰδυίῃσιν πραπίδεσσιν Hephaestus made a home for each with cunning mind, τίς σφωε ἔριδι ξυνέηκε who brought these two together in strife?

1007.  The dative is used with verbs signifying to be with, follow, join, agree, be like, fight, strive, trust, be pleased, and occasionally with those meaning to buy and to abound, as οὐκ Ἀτρεΐδῃ ἥνδανε it was not pleasing to the son of Atreus, καί οἱ πείθονται Ἀχαιοί and the Achaeans trust in him, ἀνδράσιν μάχεσθαι to fight with men, καρτίστοις ἐμάχοντο they fought with the mightiest, ἐριζέμεναι βασιλῆι strive with the king, οὔ τοι μαχήσομαι I will not fight with you.

1008.  The dative is used to denote the agent, after the past tenses, particularly the perfect and pluperfect of the passive. 

1009.  The dative with or without a preposition is used to denote the place where an action takes place. It is used of towns and countries, the great divisions of the world, the chief spheres of action, of the parts of a thing, or of the human body, after some verbs that imply locality or time, and after some verbs of motion where we should expect the accusative with a preposition, as οὐχ ἥνδανε θῡμῷ it was not pleasing in his soul, τοξ' ὤμοισιν ἔχων having his bow on his shoulders, τοῖσι δ' ἀνέστη Κάλχᾱς and Calchas arose among them, μὴ κλέππε νόῳ do not play the thief in your heart, ἄμφω θῡμῷ φιλέουσα loving both (of them) in her heart, φρεσὶ θύ̄ει he rages in his mind, ἥμενον κορυφῇ seated upon the summit, μάχῃ Τρώεσσιν ἀρήγειν to assist the Trojans in  battle, δεκάτῃ δ' ἀγορήνδε καλέσσατο λᾱὸν Ἀχιλλεὺς but on the tenth (day) Achilles summoned the people to an assemblyδωδεκάτῃ δ' ἐλεύσεται Οὔλυμπόνδε but on the twelfth (day) he will come to Olympus, πολλὰ̄ς δὲ ψῡχὰ̄ς Ἄιδι and sent many souls to Hades, σὺ δ' ἐνἐὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν and do you place it in your heart, ἄγουσι δὲ δῶρα ἄνακτι and they are taking presents to the lord, κάππεσον ἐν Λήμνῳ I fell into Lemnos.

1010.  The dative is used to denote in what particular point or respect something is true, as ὁ γὰρ βίῃ οὗ πατρὸς ἀμείνων for he is better in strength than his own father. Cf. 1014

Accusative Case

1011.  The direct object of a transitive verb is in the accusative case, as νοῦσον ὦρσε he roused a plague, Χρύ̄σην ἠτί̄μασεν he dishonored Chryses, λῡσόμενος θύγατρα to ransom his own daughter, φέρων ἄποινα bearing ransoms, στέμματ' ἔχων having fillets, ἐλίσσετο Ἀχαιούς he kept entreating the Achaeans.

1012.  Any verb whose meaning permits may take an accusative of cognate form, or equivalent meaning. This is called the cognate accusative, and may follow intransitive as well as transitive verbs, as εἶπας ἔπος you have spoken a word, ὁδὸν ἐλθέμεναι to go (on) a journey, ἔπος τ' ἔφατο and she spoke a word.

1013.  The words ἔπος, μῦθος, and ἔργον with pronouns or adjectives are at times practically equivalent to the neuter of the pronoun or adjective without these words, as εἴ σοι πᾶν ἔργον ὑπείξομαι if I shall yield to you in every matter

1014.  An accusative restricting the force of the verb to a part, character, quality, or attribute of the subject may follow many verbs that are intransitive or. reflexive in meaning. This is the accusative of the part affected, or accusative of specification, and may also accompany a noun, an adjective, or even a whole sentence, as πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύσ swift-footed Achilles (literally Achilles swift with respect to his feet), χωόμενος κῆρ enraged in heart, οὔ ἑθέν ἐστι χερείων, οὐ δέμας οὐδε φυήν οὔτ' ἂρ φρένας οὐδέ τι ἔργα she is not inferior to her, neither in build nor beauty nor disposition, nor yet in accomplishments.

1015.  The accusative is used to denote extent of time or space, as πᾶν ἦμαρ φερόμην and all day long I fell, πρόπαν ἦμαρ δαίνυντο the whole day through they feasted, ἀκέων δὴν ἧστο he sat silent a long time

1016.  The accusative dependent upon an omitted verb follows the adverbs of swearing νή, and μά, as μὰ Ἀπόλλωνα by Apollo! ναὶ μὰ τόδε σκῆπτρον yea, by this sceptre! (977)

1017.  The verbs εἶπον and αὐδάω, and more often their compounds, may take an accusative of the person addressed, as Κάλχαντα προσέειπεν he addressed Calchas, οὐδέ τί μιν προσεφώνεον nor did they say anything to him. 

1018.  The accusative may be used of the person about whom a thing is told, known, thought, or provided:

1) The person or thing is treated as the thing said or known, and not merely as spoken or known about, as οὐδ' ἢν Ἀγαμέμνονα εἴπῃς not even if you should say Agamemnon.

2) The real object of the verb is a fact expressed by a limiting clause or word. 

1019.  Words denoting the goal are in the accusative after verbs of motion, as ὅν κεν ἵκωμαι upon whom(soever) I may come, κνί̄ση δ' οὐρανὸν ἷκεν and the savor went to heaven, ἔρχεσθον κλισίην Ἀχιλῆος go to the barrack(s) of Achilles.

1020.  The following classes of verbs may be construed with two accusatives:

1) Verbs of asking, teaching, reminding, demanding, clothing, unclothing, depriving, and taking away, as ἔμ' ἀφαιρεῖται Χρῡσηίδα Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων Phoebus Apollo is depriving me of Chryseïs, μήτε σὺ τόνδ' ἀποαίρεο κούρην nor do you deprive him of the maiden.

2)  Verbs  of naming,  choosing,  appointing,  making,  thinking, regarding, and the like, as αὐτοὺς δὲ ἑλώρια τεῦχε κύνεσσιν οἰωνοῖσί τε δαῖτα made themselves a booty for the dogs and a banquet for the birds, ὃν Βριάρεων καλέουσι θεοί, ἄνδρες δέ τε πάντες Αἰγαίωνα whom the gods call Briareüs, but all men (call) Aegaeon.

3)  Verbs meaning to do anything to or say anything of a person.

1021.  The accusative may denote an object which -is affected by an action, and a second accusative of the particular part affected may be added (accusative of the whole and part), as τί δέ σε φρένας ἵ̄κετο πένθος; but what grief has come upon you in your heart? περὶ γάρ ῥά ἑ χαλκὸς ἔλεψεν φύλλα τε καὶ φλοιόν the bronze has stripped it of leaves and bark round about. NOTE — Some would classify the accusative of this last sentence under 1020 above. 

Vocative Case 

1022.  The vocative, with or without , is used in addressing a person or thing, as θεά̄ goddess! ὦ Ἀχιλεῦ O Achilles! Ἀτρεΐδαι sons of Atreus! NOTE — The nominative is often used for the vocative, 978, 3


1023.  The positive of an adjective may imply that the quality indicated is not in the proper proportion for the purpose under consideration, as μὴ δὴ πάντας ἐμοὺς ἐπιέλπεο μύ̄θους εἰδήσειν· χαλεποί τοι ἔσονται do not hope to know all my plans; they will be too hard for you (to understand). 

1024.  The comparative and superlative endings of adjectives are often employed merely to denote an unusually high degree of the quality signified, without any idea of comparison being involved. 

1025.  An adjective agrees with its noun in gender, number, and case, but not always in form, since they may belong to different declensions, as νοῦσος κακή an evil plague, where νοῦσος, although feminine, is of the second declension and ends in -ος.    This rule applies also to adjective pronouns and participles, as μῡρί' ἄλγεα countless woes, πολλὰ̄ς δ' ἰφθί̄μους ψῡγὰ̄ς Ἄιδι and sent many valiant souls to Hades, διαστήτην ἐρίσαντε these two separated after they had quarreled, δῖος Ἀχιλλεύς godlike Achilles, ἦλθε θοὰ̄ς ἐπὶ νῆας he came to the swift ships, θεοὶ Ὀλὺμπια δώματ' ἔχοντες the gods who have Olympian homes.

1026.  When referring to two, the plural and the dual are freely interchanged (973, 3), as  δύο γενεαί two generations, τὼ δ' αὐτὼ μάρτυροι ἔστων and these two themselves be witnesses.

1027.  An adjective or a participle, usually with the pronoun ὁ, ἠ, τό may be used substantively as a noun, as τά τ' ἐόντα τά τ' ἐσσόμενα, πρό τ' ἐόντα both what is, what will be, and what has been before, τὰ κακά these calamities, such calamities (1034).


1028.  The Pronoun ὁ, ἠ, τό — There are three chief uses of the pronoun, ὁ, ἠ, τό :

1) As an independent demonstrative (and third personal) pronoun, meaning this, that, he, she, it. This is its original use, and the one most commonly met with in Homer, as ὁ νοῦσον ὦρσε he roused a plague, τὸν Χρύ̄σην ἠτί̄μασεν ἀ̄ρητῆρα Ἀτρεΐδης the son of Atreus dishonored that (well-known) Chryses, the priest, τὴν δ' ἐγὼ οὐ λύ̄σω but I will not free her, ἔδεισεν δ' ὁ γέρων and that old man feared.

2) As an article properly speaking ("the"), that is, modifying and making definite a noun, but not having any particular demonstrative force. This is its ordinary use in Greek after Homer.

3) As a relative pronoun, as τὸν τέκε Λητώ whom Leto bore, τώ οἱ ἔσαν κήρῡκε who were his two heralds, τήν μοι δόσαν υἷες Ἀχαιῶν whom the sons of the Achaeans gave unto me.

NOTE — Many expressions in Homer which are translated into English by the relative prononn in a subordinate clause seem to have been coordinate originally. Thus the pronoun (ὁ, ἠ, τό) in these last three sentences may well have been thought of as demonstrative with asyndeton rather than as relative, 1113-1114.

1029.  As an independent pronoun it has two main uses:

1) It is "resumptive," that is, it refers to something already mentioned, Χρύ̄σην ἠτί̄μασεν, ὁ γὰρ ἦλθε θοὰ̄ς ἐπὶ νῆας he dishonored Chryses, for he came to the swift ships.

2) It makes a contrast, usually in combinations, such as ὁ μὲν ... ὁ δέ, and other words which help to give this effect.

1030.  ὁ μὲν ... ὁ δέ and οἱ μὲν ... οἱ δέ are frequently used to contrast both definite and indefinite persons and things. 

1031.  Its use with an adversative particle generally, but not always, marks a change of subject, as ὁ δέ but the other

1032.  The use of ὁ, ἠ, τό has evidently arisen from its employment as an independent pronoun, followed by a noun in apposition, as ἡ δ' ἀέκουσα ἅμα τοῖσι γυνὴ κίεν but she went with them against her will, i.e. the woman, where γυνὴ is added as an afterthought for the sake of greater definiteness. 

1033.  So also it may serve to introduce a new person, in this case anticipating the noun, as αὐτὰρ ὁ μήνιε νηυσὶ παρήμενος δῑογενὴς Πηλῆος υἱὸς πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς but he kept raging as he sat beside the ships, did the Zeus-born son of Peleus, the swift-footed Achilles.

1034.  With the adjective or participle it is often used as a substantive, as τὸ πλεῖον the greater part, τὰ κακά these calamities, such calamities (1027).

1035.  It is also used with the neuter accusative, singular or plural, of the adjective as an adverb, as τὰ τρῶτα at first (780-781). 

1036.  On the other hand, the masculine or feminine with an adverb may be used substantively.

1037.  Nouns with a possessive pronoun take the article only when they refer to a definite individual, as τὸ σὸν μένος this anger of yours.

1038.  It usually has a demonstrative force, and its  absence does not mark a noun as indefinite, as μῆνιν ἄειδε, θεά̄, Πηληιάδεω Ἀχιλῆος sing, goddess, the wrath of the son of Peleus, Achilles.

1039.  The Personal Pronouns — The nominative of the personal pronouns is used mainly for emphasis and contrast, as σὺ δὲ σύνθεο but do you consider. If the subject is unemphatic, the pronoun is usually omitted, as ὧς ἔφατο thus he spoke

1040.  The  oblique cases of  the  third  personal  pronoun are anaphoric, that is, they have an antecedent previously expressed to which they refer, when unaccented; but when they are accented they have their original reflexive use, as ἀπὸ ἕο κάββαλεν υἱόν she hurled her son from her, καί οἱ πείθονται Ἀχαιοί and the Achaeans trust in him

1041.  Demonstrative Pronouns — The demonstrative pronouns are thus distinguished:

1) (ἐ)κεῖνος, η, ο is used of something remote from the speaker.

2) ὁ, ἡ, τό differs from οὗτος, (ἐ)κεῖνος, ὅδε, etc., in that it usually marks a contrast in objects, but does not distinguish them as near and far, present and- absent, ete.

3) The compounds of ὁ, ἡ, τό are used of something near the speaker, or of something associated with him.

4) οὗτος is used of  something which has been mentioned already, or else of something of particular interest or concern to the second person.

5)  ὁ, ἡ, τό' in addition to being employed as a relative and as a personal pronoun is used to mark a contrast.

6)  αὐτός in all its cases regularly means self, but at times may mean same; it is regularly intensive and is used especially to contrast a man or an object with other less important details, as clothing, weapons, and appurtenances of various kinds.

1042.  Possessive Pronouns — The possessive pronouns are as a rule«equivalent to the possessive genitive of the personal pronoun, παῖς ἐμός = παῖς ἐμοῦ my child

1043.  The  Interrogative Pronouns — The interrogative τίς, τί  who? which? what? may be either substantive or adjective, and may be used in either direct or indirect questions.

1044.  The Indefinite Pronoun — The indefinite τὶς, τὶ some (one), something, any (one), anything may be either substantive or adjective, but is sometimes almost the equivalent of the English indefinite article, a(n), as τινὰ μάντιν ἐρείομεν let us ask a seer.

1045.  Relative Pronouns — A relative agrees with its antecedent in gender and number, but its case depends upon the construction of the clause in which it stands, as μῆνιν ἄειδε, ἣ ἄλγε ἔθηκεν sing the wrath which caused woes

1046.  The antecedent of the relative may be omitted when it can easily be supplied from the context, especially when it is indefinite, as λώιόν ἐστι δῶρ' ἀποαιρεῖσθαι, ὅστις σέθεν ἀντίον εἴπῃ it is better to take away the gifts (of that man) whoever speaks against you.

1047.  The antecedent is sometimes attracted into the relative clause. It then agrees in case with the relative. 


1048.  Most prepositions were originally adverbs (chiefly local), and are often so employed in Homer (without case), as ἐν δέ but therein, ὑπό below, παρά by his side.

1049.  They are used both with nouns and verbs, but are often separated from the words they modify, sometimes following them. This separation in the case of verbs has been incorrectly named tmesis (τμῆσις cutting), as κρατερὸν ἐπὶ μῦθον ἔτελλεν and he enjoined a stern command (upon him), where ἐπί is to be taken with ἔτελλεν as part of the verbal idea, καὶ ἐπὶ κνέφας ἦλθεν and darkness came on, where ἐπί must be joined with ἦλθεν.

1050.  Dissyllabic prepositions regularly have  the  accent on the ultima, but in two cases they take the accent on the penult:

1) When they follow the word modified (with the exception of ἀμφίς, ἀνά, ἀντί, διά), as  ᾧ ἔπι πολλὰ μόγησα for which I underwent great toil, θῖν' ἔφ' ἁλός upon the shore of the sea.

2) When a preposition stands for itself compounded with a verb, as ἔνι, ἔπι, μέτα, πάρα, πέρι (all compounded with εἰμί), and ἄνα for the imperative of ἀνίστημι stand up! up! 

1051.  Prepositions  are  used with  the  genitive,  dative, and accusative cases; some are used with all three cases, some with only two, and some with only one. 

1052.  They are used to emphasize or to define  more clearly certain case relations. Of course the prepositions do not "govern" these cases, but the cases take the prepositions. 

1053.  The genitive with prepositions  primarily denotes that from which something proceeds, the dative that in or by which something is or is done, the accusative that toward, over, along, or upon which motion occurs. 

1054.  The primary relations  expressed by prepositions  are those of place and lime, but they may express cause, origin, agency, condition, purpose, and various other relations. 

1055.  Prepositions are used in forming compound verbs, many of which, particularly those compounded with ἐν, ἐπί, and σύν, are construed with the dative. 

1056.  With the genitive alone are used the following:

ἀντί instead of
ἀπό off, from, away from
ἐκ (ἐξ) out of, from
πρό before

1057.  And the following, known as improper prepositions :

ἄγχι near, close
ἄνευ without
ἄντα, ἀντίον opposite, facing
ἀντικρυ straight to
ἄψ behind
ἕνεκα on account of
ἕκητι by will of
ἐκτος without
ἐντος within
μεσσηγύς between
μέσφα until
νόσφι(ν) apart from
ὄπισθε(ν) (from) behind
πάλι(ν) back from
πάροιθεν before, in front of
πρόσθε(ν) before
τῆλε far (from)
τηλόθι far (from) 
together with several others not so common. 

1058.  With the  dative alone are used: ἐν(ί), εἰν in, and  σύν (ξύν) with

1059.  With the accusative alone are used εἰς (ἐς) into, to, -δε to.

1060.  With the genitive and accusative are used: διά through on account of, ὑπέρ over, on behalf of, and κατά down (through).

1061.  The following are used with the genitive, dative, and accusative:

ἀμφί around, about, on both sides
ἀνά (up)on, up through, along
ἐπί (up)on, to, toward, against
μετά with, after
παρά beside, to the side of, from beside
περί around, concerning
πρός toward, with reference to
ὑπό under, by means of

Syntax of the Verb

1062.  A transitive verb is one whose action passes over to an object in the accusative, as μῆνιν ἄειδε sing the wrath, ἐλίσσετο Ἀχαιούς he kept entreating the Achaeans.

1063.  An intransitive verb is one whose action does not pass over to an object, as ἦλθε he came

1064.  In verbs with both first and second tenses (first aorist, second aorist, first perfect, second perfect, etc.), the first tense is usually transitive (often causative, 1069), the second intransitive. 

1065.  The active voice denotes the subject as acting, as νοῦσον ἀνὰ στρατὸν ὦρσε he kindled a plague up through the camp.

1066.  The passive voice denotes the subject as being acted upon, as Διὸς δ' ἐτελείετο βουλή but the will of Zeus was being accomplished.

1067.  In the middle voice the subject is represented as acting :

1) upon itself, as πείθομαι I persuade myself (obey), φαίνομαι I show myself (appear).

2) for itself (reflexively) , as καλέομαι call for myself, summon.

3) upon something belonging to itself, or in which it has a special interest, as λύομαι I loose my own, ransom.

1068.  It is often difficult to distinguish in translation between the active and middle, but the action of the middle always has some reference, either direct or indirect, to the subject, and the subject has an interest in, or is affected by the action. 

1069.  Some verbs are used at times in a causative sense, that is, the subject causes something to'be done by another, as ἂν δ' αὐτὴν Χρῡσηίδα βήσομεν let us cause Chryseïs to go on board.

1070.  Sometimes the present tense indicates that an action is only attempted ; this is called the conative present, as ἀρνύμενος striving to win.

1071.  When an active verb which takes two accusatives (1020) becomes passive, the accusative of the thing is retained, while the accusative of the person becomes the subject, as ἀναιδείην ἐπιειμένε O thou clothed in shamelessness!

1072.  The tenses denote time of action and kind of action.

1073.  The time of action is indicated by the tenses only in the indicative.

1074.  The present is denoted by the present tense, and by the perfect.

1075.  The   past is denoted by the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect. The future is denoted by the future and the future perfect.

1076.  Continued or repeated action is denoted by the present, the imperfect, and (occasionally) the future.

1077.  Completed action denoting a permanent state is indicated by the perfect, pluperfect, and future perfect.

1078.  Action that simply takes place is indicated by the aorist and (sometimes) the future.

1079.  The imperfect denotes the continuance of action in past time, customary or repeated action, as ἔλυον, I loosed, was loosing, kept loosing, was accustomed to loose. 

1080.  The aorist indicative denotes the simple occurrence of an action in past time, as ἔλῡσα I loosed, did loose

1081.  Inceptive aorist : The aorist of verbs denoting a state or a condition, or continued action, usually denotes the entrance into the state, or the beginning of the action, as ἐδάκρῡσε he fell to weeping.

1082.  The aorist is often used to express a general truth. It is then called a gnomic aorist, and is considered a primary tense, as ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται, μάλα τ' ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ whoever obeys the gods, him they especially hear.

1083.  The future ordinarily denotes that an action will take place later ; but may express desire or a command.

1084.  The perfect regularly denotes a state or a  condition (usually as the result of completed action), and should be translated by the present, as προβέβουλα I prefer, ἀμφιβέβηκας (who) dost protect.


1085.  The adverbs ἄν and κέ(ν) are often used to qualify the meaning of the moods ; they are used in two ways :

1) In independent clauses they are used with the subjunctive, the optative, and with the past and future tenses of the indicative; and also with the participle and infinitive, when they represent the independent indicative and optative.

2) In dependent clauses, usually with the subjunctive.

1086.  These adverbs usually give a touch of indefiniteness to the clause in which they stand. They have no exact equivalent in English. When they appear in the conclusion of conditional sentences, they are  usually  translated  by  could, or would, in English. 

1087.  The subjunctive with these adverbs is used almost the same as the future indicative, or the potential optative (1105). 

1088.  They are used in simple sentences and in the apodosis (conclusion) of complex sentences to express limitation by circumstances or conditions.

1089.  They are regularly found in final clauses referring to the future.

1090.  They are usually found in conditional clauses in the optative and in the  subjunctive, when the governing verb is future, or in a mood which implies futurity.

1091.  They are  not  ordinarily used in conditional, relative, and temporal clauses with the subjunctive in comparisons and similes, or when they refer to events which occur repeatedly or at an indefinite time, or when they refer to sayings which have a general application. 

The Moods in Simple Sentences

The Independent Indicative Without ἄν or κέ(ν)

1092.  Without ἄν or κέ(ν) the indicative mood simply states a fact, either positively or negatively, asks a question, or makes an exclamation. 

1093.  An unattainable wish which refers to the present or to the past is expressed by a past tense of the indicative with αἴθε (εἴθε), or εἰ γάρ; the negative is μή.

1094.  To express an unattainable wish, ὤφελον ought is used with the present infinitive to denote present time and continued past action, or with the aorist infinitive to denote past time. 

The Independent Indicative With ἄν or κέ(ν)

1095.  The aorist (and sometimes the imperfect) indicative is used with ἄν or κέ(ν) to denote past possibility, probability, necessity, or a cautious statement. 

1096.  The past tenses of the indicative may be used with ἄν or κέ(ν) to denote unreality. 

1097.  ἄν or κέ(ν) may be used with the future indicative with a conditional or limiting meaning. 

The Independent Subjunctive Without ἄν or κέ(ν)

1098.  The subjunctive without ἄν or κέ(ν) is used in the first person, present and aorist, to express a desire or a request (hortatory subjunctive), as τινὰ μάντιν ἐρείομεν let us ask some seer.

1099.  The aorist subjunctive is used in the second and third persons (and sometimes in the first) with μή in prohibitions, as μή σε κιχήω let me not come upon you.

1100.  The present and aorist subjunctive are used in the first person (rarely, in the third) in deliberative questions as to what may be done advantageously or with propriety.

1101.  The subjunctive is frequently used as nearly the equivalent of the future indicative, and refers to some future event. It is usually qualified by ἄν or κέ(ν) and the negative is οὐ

The Independent Optative Without ἄν or κέ(ν)

1102.  The independent optative without ἄν or κέ(ν) is used to express a wish that something may happen, as ὑ̄μῖν θεοὶ δοῖεν may the gods grant to you.

1103   The potential optative (1105), which regularly takes ἄν or κέ(ν), is occasionally found without either.

1104.  The optative is employed at times to express a command, a request, or an exhortation, being practically equivalent to the imperative. 

The Independent Optative With ἄν or κέ(ν)

1105.  With ἄν or κέ(ν) the optative is used to express a future action as dependent upon circumstances or conditions. This is called the potential optative, and is usually to be translated by might, could, would, etc. 

The Imperative 

1106.  The imperative expresses a command, or a request; the negative is μή.

The Infinitive


1) The only tenses which occur in the infinitive are the present, future, aorist, perfect, and future perfect. The middle and passive differ in form in the aorist only.

2) In the subjunctive, optative, imperative, and infinitive, the tenses do not of themselves indicate time.

3) The present in these moods denotes an action simply as continued.

4) The aorist denotes an action simply as brought to pass.

5) The perfect denotes an action simply as completed.

6) The subject of an infinitive is usually in the accusative, but may be omitted when it is the subject of the leading verb, or its direct or indirect object.

7) The infinitive may be the subject of a verb, especially an impersonal one, or ἐστί(ν).

8) It may be the object of a verb, especially verbs indicating wish, command, advice, consent, attempt, and the like.

9) The infinitive may depend upon adjectives or substantives, especially those denoting ability, fitness, willingness, or have a similar meaning to verbs which take the infinitive (1107, 7).

10) The infinitive also may express purpose ; the negative is μή.

11) The infinitive is used also to express a command with the nominative of the second person, or with the accusative of the third person for the subject if expressed; the subject may be omitted. In this usage it is the equivalent of the imperative.

The Participle

1108.  The participle has only the present, future, aorist, perfect, and future perfect tenses. It is used attributively as an adjective to modify a noun, or the noun may be omitted and the participle (usually with the pronoun, ὁ, ἡ, τό) may be used as a substantive. Such participles usually indicate time present, past, or future relatively to the time of the main verb.

NOTE 1 — The aorist participle may denote time contemporaneous with the action of the main verb, as μειδήσᾱσα ἐδέξατο κύπελλον she took the cup with a smile.

NOTE 2 — On the other hand, the present participle may express time previous to the action of the main verb, as Χρῡσηίδα εἷσεν ἄγων leading Chryseïs on board he seated her.

1109.  The participle may express:

1) Time, as τοῖσι δ' ἀνιστάμενος μετέφη Ἀχιλλεύς when he had risen among them Achilles addressed them.

2) Cause.

3) Manner or means.

4) Condition.

5) Purpose or desire (usually the future participle), as λῡσόμενος θύγατρα (desiring) to ransom his own daughter; μαχησόμενος (desiring) to fight, for the purpose of fighting.

6) Concession, as ἀλόχῳ περ ἐούσῃ even though you are my wife.

7) Attendant circumstance.

1110.  The Greek often employs a participle where we should use a relative clause, as θεοὶ Ὀλύμπια δώματ' ἔχοντες the gods who have Olympian homes.

1111.  A noun and a participle, not closely connected grammatically with the rest of the sentence, may stand by themselves in the genitive in the construction known as the genitive absolute. See 994.

1112.  This construction arose from   the use  of the genitive modified by a participle, where the genitive was dependent upon some word in the main construction of the sentence, and many cases are on the border line between the absolute and the dependent ' constructions.

Compound Sentences

1113.  Asyndeton, or the omission of conjunctions between independent elements of a sentence, is often used to mark lively and rapid descriptions.

1114.  Parataxis, or coordination, was often employed where one would expect a subordinate construction. 1028, note. 

Subordinate Constructions

Purpose Clauses

1115.  Clauses which denote purpose or final clauses are introduced by the final particles ὡς, ὅπ(π)ως, ἵνα, ὄφρα, ἕως; the negative is μή.

1116.  Purpose clauses take the subjunctive after primary (816) tenses, the optative (occasionally the subjunctive) after secondary tenses. 

1117.  The subjunctive sometimes takes ἄν or κέ(ν), especially with ὡς, ὅπ(π)ως and ὄφρα

Object Clauses

1118.  The two main types of object clauses are:

1)  Object clauses with verbs of effort.

2)  Object clauses with verbs of fear.

1119.  ὅπ(π)ως (sometimes ὡς and ἵνα) is used to introduce object clauses with verbs of effort. These  clauses take the future indicative after both primary and secondary tenses (816). The negative is μή

1120.  With verbs of effort object clauses may take the con-/struction of purpose clauses, with ὅπ(π)ως and the subjunctive or optative.

1121.  With verbs of caution negative object clauses take the construction of clauses with verbs of effort or with verbs of fear. 

1122.  With verbs of effort, object clauses may take the subjunctive with ἄν after ὅπ(π)ως, and sometimes after ὡς

1123.  With verbs meaning to consider, plan, try, the subjunctive with or without κέ(ν), or the optative is used. These object clauses do not take the future indicative.

1124.  The subjunctive, optative, or the future indicative, with ὅπ(π)ως (ὅπ(π)ως μή in the negative) may follow verbs of will or desire, instead of the infinitive which is the usual construction after these verbs.

Object Clauses After Verbs of Fear

1125.  With verbs of fear, which refer to the future, object clauses have the subjunctive after primary tenses, and the optative (sometimes the subjunctive) after secondary tenses (816). 

1126.  With μή or ὅπ(π)ως μή, the subjunctive or optative may be used to indicate a possible object of fear. The aorist subjunctive may refer to past time, as δέδοικα μή σε παρείπῃ I fear lest she has beguiled you.

1127.  The indicative with μή (μὴ οὐ in the negative) is used to express  fear which refers to the present or past time. The aorist is employed in this_construction.

Causal Clauses 

1128.  Causal clauses are introduced by ὅτι, ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ὅτε, ὅ, ὅ τε, ὁπ(π)ότε, οὕνεκα, ὡς and εὖτε.

1129.  Causal clauses which denote a fact regularly have the indicative after both primary and secondary tenses. 

1130.  Causal clauses which denote an alleged or a supposed reason have the optative after secondary tenses.

Result Clauses (Consecutive Clauses)

1131.  Clauses of result are introduced by various words, some of the most common being ὥστε, ὡς, οἵος, ὅσ(σ)ος

1132.  These clauses may employ either the infinitive or the finite verb:

1) The infinitive is used to indicate an anticipated, natural, or possible result; the negative is μή.

2) When the finite verb is used, any form of the simple sentence may be employed. The indicative (especially in the aorist) is the form most commonly used, denoting the actual result of the action of the principal verb; the negative is οὐ.

Conditional Clauses

1133.  A conditional sentence regularly consists of two principal elements:

1) The condition, denoting a supposed or assumed (if) case, called the protasis.

2) The conclusion, denoting what follows if the condition is realized, called the apodosis.

1134.  εἰ and αἰ are used to introduce conditional clauses, in the indicative and optative.

1135.  εἰ, ἄν, εἴ (αἴ), κε(ν), ἤν are used to introduce conditional clauses in the subjunctive.

1136.  In the conclusion ἄν or κέ(ν) is employed with the optative to indicate possibility, and with the past tenses of the indicative to indicate the unfulfillment of the condition, or repetition.

1137.  The negative of the condition is μή; of the conclusion it is οὐ when the conclusion is considered a fact if the condition be true.

1138.  Present unreal  conditional sentences have εἰ with the optative in the condition, and ἄν with the optative in the con-' elusion. 

1139.  Past  unreal   conditional   sentences  have  the  aorist  or imperfect indicative in the condition, and in the conclusion either the aorist or imperfect indicative with ἄν or κέ(ν), or the present or aorist optative with ἄν or κέ(ν). The imperfect of unreal conditions represents past time.

1140.  More vivid future conditions have:

1) εἰ ἄν, ἤν with the subjunctive in the condition, and in the conclusion either the future indicative or some other form referring to future time.

2) The subjunctive with κέ(ν) in both condition and conclusion.

3) (Rarely) εἴ (αἴ), κε(ν) with the future in the condition.

1141.  Less vivid future conditions have εἴ κε(ν), εἴ ἄν, with the optative  in the condition, and in the conclusion may have the present indicative, the simple future indicative, the future indicative with κέ(ν) the hortatory subjunctive, the subjunctive with ἄν or κέ(ν), or the optative, with the same force as the optative with ἄν or κέ(ν).

1142.  Present general conditions have ἄν (ἤν) with the subjunctive in the condition, and the present indicative or its equivalent in the conclusion.

1143.  Past general conditions have εἰ with the optative in the condition, and the imperfect indicative or its equivalent in the conclusion.

1144.  Ordinary relative clauses, which define more closely a definite antecedent, have the constructions of other simple sentences, except κέ(ν) or ἄν may be used with the future.

1145.  Relative clauses of purpose have the subjunctive (usually with κέ(ν)) after primary tenses, and the optative after secondary tenses, although the future indicative may be used.

1146.  More vivid future conditional relative clauses have the subjunctive, usually with ἄν or κέ(ν), and sometimes the future with ἄν or κέ(ν).

1147.  Less vivid future conditional relative clauses have the optative with ἄν or κέ(ν) in the main clause, and sometimes have ἄν or κέ(ν) with the optative in the relative clause.

1148.  Present generalizing relative clauses usually have ἄν or κέ(ν) with the subjunctive in the relative clause, or the present indicative or an equivalent in the main clause.

1149.  Past generalizing relative clauses have the optative in the relative clause, and the imperfect indicative or its equivalent in the main clause.

Temporal Clauses

1150.  Temporal clauses are introduced by the temporal conjunctions ὅτε, ὁπ(π)ότε, ἕως, εὖτε, ἦμος, ὅπ(π)ως, ὄφρα; ἐπεί, ἐπειδή, ἐξ, (ἀφ') οὗ; εἰς, ὅτε (κέ(ν)), εἰς ὅ (κέ(ν)).

1151.  Temporal clauses which refer to the future or to indefinite present time have the subjunctive with ἄν or κέ(ν).

1152.  Temporal clauses which refer to future time have ἄν or κέ(ν) with the optative in the temporal clause, and may have the future indicative, or the subjunctive with ἄν or κέ(ν) in the main clause.

Indirect Questions

1153.  Indirect questions keep the mood and tense of direct questions, after primary tenses (the indicative, the past indicative with ἄν, the deliberative subjunctive, or the potential optative with ἄν or κέ(ν). After secondary tenses they may keep the mood and tense of direct questions, but generally change to the optative. 

Indirect Discourse

1154.  The kind of the leading verb or expression in a sentence involving indirect discourse determines the construction:

1)  Verbs of saying have either the infinitive or a ὅτι (ὡς) clause.

2)  Verbs of thinking and believing usually take the infinitive.

3)  Verbs of knowing, learning, perceiving, hearing, showing, and the like, usually have the participle, but may have a ὅτι (ὡς) clause.

1155.  Clauses in indirect discourse introduced by ὅτι or ὡς is, after primary tenses keep the mood and tense of the direct form unchanged. 

1156.  Indicatives and subjunctives without ἄν or κέ(ν) usually become optative after secondary tenses, but may remain unchanged.

1157.  Subordinate verbs after primary tenses keep their original mood and tense.

1158.  The  optative is not employed in indirect discourse, except in indirect questions (1153). After both primary  and secondary tenses in principal clauses, the same past tense is used that would have been employed in an independent clause, from the speaker's point of view. After the secondary tenses the future is generally represented by ἔμελλον with the infinitive.


Rules of Quantity, the Hexameter

1159.  Every vowel which has the circumflex accent is long (537).

1160.  The  vowel of the ultima in every word having the circumflex on the penult is short (545).

1161.  If a long, penult has the acute accent, then the ultima must; be long also.

1162.  If the ultima is short and the penult has the acute accent, then the penult must be short also.

1163.  If the antepenult has the accent, the vowel of the ultima must be short (544).

1164.  Exceptions to these rules are to be found only in the cases of the diphthongs αι and οι, when final, which are then considered short (except in the optative and οἴκοι) for the purpose of accent but must be counted long when marking the feet of the verse (547). 

1165.  Apparent exceptions to these rules are to be found in the case of certain classes of compounds, as οὔτε, μήτε, οὔτις, μήτις, ἥδε, οἴδε, αἵδε, τούσδε, τά̄σδε, etc., where the primary form is accented without considering the following enclitic as an integral part of the word.

1166.  Most exceptions to the rules of quantity are only apparent.

1167.  If an apparently short final syllable stands where a long one is expected, it is probable that:

1) The pause of the caesura (1185) or diaeresis (1188) fills out the time required for the foot, allowing the same freedom as at the end of a verse, or

2) The following word has lost an initial consonant (usually ϝ, sometimes σ), which would have made the preceding syllable long by position.

1168.  Short syllables ending in a single consonant are occasionally lengthened in thesis (the accented or ictus-syllable), although the next word begins with a vowel.

Special Rules for Determining the Length of Syllables by their Position in Hexameter

1169.  If a long syllable is followed by a short, then the next syllable must be short also.

1170.  If a short syllable is followed by a long, then the preceding syllable must be short also.

1171.  The first syllable of each foot must be long, and is to be given slightly more stress than the other half of the foot.

1172.  When a word ends in a short vowel (and sometimes the diphthongs αι and οι), and the next word begins with a vowel, the final vowel of the first word is regularly elided (575).

1173.  When a word ends in a long vowel or a diphthong and the next word begins with a vowel, the long final vowel or diphthong is regularly shortened.

NOTE — Sometimes a  long vowel or diphthong is shortened when followed by a vowel within the same word.

1174.  If a word ends in a  short vowel  and  the next word originally began with vau (ϝ), elision ordinarily does not take place (580).

1175.  If a word ends in a long vowel or a diphthong and the next word originally began with a vau (ϝ), the long final vowel or diphthong ordinarily remains long.

1176.  If a word ends in a long vowel or a diphthong and has the verse-accent on it, the long vowel or diphthong may remain long, even though the next word begins with a vowel.

1177.  When a word ending in. a vowel is followed by a word beginning with a vowel, the result is hiatus. Hiatus is ordinarily avoided in poetry either:

1) by elision

2) by the use of movable consonants, 561-563

3) by the shortening of a final long vowel or diphthong, 1173

4) by crasis or synizesis, 586-587.

1178.  Hiatus may be allowed:

1) when there is a distinct pause in sense (diaeresis or caesura 1185-1189) between the vowels which produce it

2) when the verse-accent (ictus) falls on the long vowel or diphthong which is followed by another vowel

3) when elision has, already taken place

4) after ι or υ

5) when a long vowel or diphthong is shortened (weak or improper hiatus).

1179.  The metre of the Homeric poems is the dactylic (sometimes called the heroic) hexameter, the most common of all Greek verse.

1180.  There are six feet to the verse, the first five being either dactyls (that is, one long followed 'by two shorts - v v), or its equivalent, the spondee (that is, two longs - -). The sixth foot is always a spondee.

1181.  In dactylic hexameter the ictus (verse accent) is always on the first syllable of each foot.

1182.  The fifth foot is usually a dactyl, only about one verse in twenty having a spondee in this place, which gives the verse a movement slower than usual. It is then called a spondaic verse.

1183.  In each foot one part is distinguished from the other by a slight stress of voice, called the ictus.

1184.  The final syllable of a verse may be either long or short, but as there is a slight pause here, the final syllable in hexameter is always considered long, making the last foot of the verse always a spondee, 1180.

1185.  Whenever a word ends within a foot, it is called caesura. If this coincides with a pause in the verse, it is called the caesura of the verse. The caesura is employed with great skill in the Homeric poems to make the verse more melodious and to aid in its recital.

1186.  There is almost always a caesura in the third foot. It occurs either after the first syllable of the foot, or else between the two short syllables.

1187.  The pause after the first syllable is called the masculine caesura, that after the second the feminine.

1188.  Whenever the end of a word coincides with the end of a foot, it is called diaeresis. When this falls with a pause, it is called the diaeresis of the verse.

1189.  The most important diaeresis is the one which comes at the end of the fourth foot. From its common employment in pastoral poetry it is called the bucolic diaeresis.

1190.  For metrical purposes all vowels and syllables of Greek words may be divided into long and short.

1191.  The rhythm of Greek verse is based upon the regular succession of long and short syllables.

1192.  To obtain facility in reading the verse, a considerable quantity of it should be memorized, special attention being paid to the quantity (that is, twice as much time should be given to each long syllable as to a short), and the pauses should be carefully observed. Although English verse is primarily accentual rather than quantitative, still the memorizing of a few lines of English dactylic hexameter (Longfellow's "Evangeline," 1 for example, mediocre though it be) will materially aid in getting the swing and the movement of the Greek hexameter.

1 This is the forest primaeval, the murmuring pines and the hemlocks,
Bearded with moss, and in garments green, indistinct in the twilight,
Stand like Druids of eld, with voices sad and prophetic,
Stand like harpers hoar, with beards that rest on their bosoms.